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In many settings, the only factors that are publicly observable about industrial AI systems are their inputs and outputs.

Even when available, the source code or model structure of an AI agent can provide insufficient predictive power over its output.

We ask whether there cannot also be ‘artificial’ science—knowledge about artificial objects and phenomena.” In line with Simon’s vision, we describe the emergence of an interdisciplinary field of scientific study.

Industrial secrecy and legal protection of intellectual property often surround source code and model structure.This Review frames and surveys the emerging interdisciplinary field of machine behaviour: the scientific study of behaviour exhibited by intelligent machines.Here we outline the key research themes, questions and landmark research studies that exemplify this field.Here we argue that this necessitates a broad scientific research agenda to study machine behaviour that incorporates and expands upon the discipline of computer science and includes insights from across the sciences.We first outline a set of questions that are fundamental to this emerging field and then explore the technical, legal and institutional constraints on the study of machine behaviour., Nobel Laureate Herbert Simon wrote: “Natural science is knowledge about natural objects and phenomena.

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