After the States Reorganisation Act, 1956, the modern-day state of Kerala was formed by merging the Malabar district of Madras State (excluding Gudalur taluk of Nilgiris district, Topslip, the Attappadi Forest east of Anakatti), the state of Thiru-Kochi (excluding four southern taluks of Kanyakumari district, Shenkottai and Tenkasi taluks), and the taluk of Kasaragod (now Kasaragod District) in South Canara (Tulunad) which was a part of Madras State.The economy of Kerala is the 12th-largest state economy in India with Kerala has the lowest positive population growth rate in India, 3.44%; the highest Human Development Index (HDI), 0.712 in 2015 (0.784 in 2018); the highest literacy rate, 93.91% in the 2011 census; the highest life expectancy, 77 years; and the highest sex ratio, 1,084 women per 1,000 men.In the agricultural sector, coconut, tea, coffee, cashew and spices are important.The state's coastline extends for 595 kilometres (370 mi), and around 1.1 million people in the state are dependent on the fishery industry which contributes 3% to the state's income.It is divided into 14 districts with the capital being Thiruvananthapuram.Malayalam is the most widely spoken language and is also the official language of the state.
contemporary Sangam literature describes Roman ships coming to Muziris in Kerala, laden with gold to exchange for pepper.
Arabs also had trade links with Kerala, starting before the 4th century BCE, as Herodotus (484–413 BCE) noted that goods brought by Arabs from Kerala were sold to the Israelis [Hebrew (Jews)] at Eden.
In the 4th century, the Knanaya or Southist Christians also migrated from Persia and lived along side the early Syriac Christian community known as the St.
The state has the highest media exposure in India with newspapers publishing in nine languages, mainly English and Malayalam.
Kerala is one of the prominent tourist destinations of India, with backwaters, hill stations, beaches, Ayurvedic tourism and tropical greenery as its major attractions.